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Cardiovascular

Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)

Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) is the measure of the maximum amount of iron needed to saturate blood transferrin, the main iron-transport protein. TIBC is used as an indirect measurement of transferrin concentrations (Hawkins, 2007; Yamanishi et al., 2003). Patients having iron deficiency display low blood levels of iron but elevated levels of TIBC.

Serum Amyloid A (SAA)

SAA is an acute phase protein, mainly produced by the liver and released in response to inflammation or infections. Indeed, SAA production is stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1 and TNF-α (Calabrò et al., 2010).

Lipoprotein A Lp(a)

Lp(a) is a macromolecular complex composed of one molecule of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) containing apolipoprotein B100 and one molecule of apolipoprotein(a). Lp(a) is synthesized by the liver and its assembly occurs at the hepatocyte cell membrane surface. Lp(a) has been shown to promote thrombosis, by preventing the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin and to participate to wound healing and tissue repair (Riches and Porter, 2012). Lp(a) has also been described as an acute-phase reactant in various disorders.

Iron

Iron is one of the most important nonorganic molecule for most forms of life. Almost all cells employ iron for fundamental activities such as energy metabolism and oxygen transport. The three main source of iron are the dietary absorption in the duodenum, the release of recycled iron from macrophages and the release of stored iron from hepatocytes (Kohgo et al., 2008). At the same time, iron excess is toxic due to its capacity to generate reactive oxygen species, underlining the importance of iron homeostasis.

Hepcidin

Hepcidin is a hormone mainly produced by hepatocytes as a precursor pro-peptide which undergoes proteolytic processing to yield its bioactive form of 25 amino-acids. Hepcidin is a key iron regulatory hormone; it inhibits iron entry into the plasma compartment by promoting the degradation of ferroportin, whose fundamental role is to release iron from tissues into the bloodstream (Nemeth et al., 2004a).

Ferritin

Ferritin is a ubiquitous and specialized protein implicated in the intracellular storage of iron. In mammals, ferritin is composed of 24 subunits forming a hallow globular complex whose cavity can store up to 4500 iron atoms (Finazzi and Arosio, 2014). Ferritin-mediated iron storage involves an oxidation process  ̶  conversion of Fe(II) to Fe(III)  ̶  that protects cells from the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (Recalcati et al., 2008).

VEGF-A // Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A or VEGF) is a member of the Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family and is implicated in embryogenic development, angiogenesis and vascular permeability (Coultas et al., 2005). Biological activities of VEGF-A are mediated through binding with VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, two related tyrosine kinases receptors (Ferrara et al., 2003). VEGF-A exist under several isoforms (at least 7 different spliced variants) which have different capacities to bind heparin and heparin-sulfate and are differentially expressed during development (Byrne et al., 2005).

MPO // Myeloperoxidase

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the peroxidase responsible for the green tinge in pus and phlegm. Named first verdoperoxidase after its isolation from canine pus, MPO is implicated in the defense against ingested pathogens. MPO constitute approximately 5% of the total neutrophil content in protein (Klebanoff et al., 2013). MPO is glycoprotein belonging to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily which also includes eosinophil peroxidase, lactoperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase. MPO have an additional sulfonium ion linkage (Carpena et al., 2009).

MMP-9 // Active and Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase 9

The MMPs family comprises at least 24 different MMPs with high sequence similarity in their catalytic domains. MMPs are synthetized as pro-enzymes which are inactive until removal of their pro-domain (Löffek et al., 2011; Nagase and Woessner, 1999). MMP-9 is also called gelatinase B and its expression is induced by numerous factors including TGF-β, TNF-α and VEGF. MMP-9 degrades denatured collagens, matrix associated substrate, aggrecan and can also convert some cytokines into more active or inactive immune signals (Vandooren et al., 2013).

cAMP // Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate

Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) is a second messenger implicated in a very wide range of biological processes. For example, in the kidney cAMP participates in the regulation of the renin release and, in the bone cells its production is stimulated by PTH (Castrop et al., 2010; Swarthout et al., 2002). Increased urine excretion of cAMP is found in hyperparathyroid patients and this cAMP is produced in kidneys (Gennari et al., 1976).

Bioclinica Lab employs a manual competitive radioimmunoassay designed for the measurement of cAMP in urine.

Adiponectin // Acrp30

Adiponectin, also called adipocyte complement-related protein of 30kDa (Acrp30), is a collagen-like protein predominantly synthesized and secreted by adipocytes (Scherer et al., 1995). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine in blood and exists under three forms: dimers, hexamers or higher order multimers (respectively called low-, middle-, and high-molecular weight forms) (Pajvani et al., 2003). Among its role in lipid and glucose metabolism regulation, adiponectin is also described for its involvement in inflammatory processes (Ouchi et al., 2011).

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